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The difference between electromagnet and permanent magnet
Sep 24 , 2021

Generally speaking, magnets can be divided into permanent magnets and non-permanent magnets. They are widely used in modern industry and people's daily life. Although both permanent magnets and electromagnets are magnetic and have the ability to attract iron, their characteristics and advantages are different. Today we mainly talk about the difference between electromagnet and permanent magnet.


The main difference between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet is that the former generates a magnetic field when current flows, and the magnetic field disappears when the current stops flowing. On the other hand, permanent magnets are made of magnetic materials, which are magnetized and have their own magnetic field. It will always show magnetic behavior.

As the name implies, the permanent magnetic field is permanent, and the electromagnetic field depends on the flow of current. Electromagnets are composed of coils, which act as magnets when current passes.


1.The state of the magnetic poles is different
Magnets have N and S poles, which can be easily distinguished with a compass. The electromagnet is divided into DC and AC.
Like permanent magnets, DC electromagnets have a fixed magnetic field and stable magnetic poles. The alternating current produces an alternating magnetic field, and the N and S poles are constantly changing and exchanging.


2.The controllability of magnetic intensity is different
The electromagnet can control the strength of the magnetic force by adjusting the excitation current as required. The magnetic field strength of the permanent magnet is fixed and difficult to adjust. Of course, some fine adjustments can also be made through magnetic short circuit or magnetic shielding, but the effect is limited and the operation is very inconvenient.


3. Different uses
Permanent magnets are mainly used for miniaturization, and electromagnetics are mainly used in large motors or equipment. Because the permanent magnet itself is magnetic, the volume can be made small. For example, the rotor in the quartz clock, the small motor used for vibration in the mobile phone, etc. However, large motors and steel mills must use electromagnets for lifting magnets. Otherwise, not only the magnetic field strength will not meet the requirements, but also the operation will not be possible.



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