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What is the solenoid?
Mar 03 , 2022

Different properties and characteristics can be found when a thing is analyzed from different angles. In order to provide a more complete description of dc solenoid, we analyze them from as many angles as possible.


From the energy point of view: solenoid, is a kind of transducer device. That is, a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. This is the essential characteristic of a solenoid.

From the mechanical point of view: it is also one of the power sources that provide mechanical action.

Let's look at the mechanical power source in addition to the solenoid there are those, electric motors, pneumatic systems, hydraulic systems (in fact, pneumatic or hydraulic is the use of air pump liquid pump final power is still provided by the motor), engines (both automotive, aviation, aerospace engines are chemical energy into mechanical energy), from here we can see that the mechanical power source for human use is not much, and by the use of environmental restrictions, the occasion.


But no matter which type of motor direct output power way is rotating, and in the need for the occasion of flat motion must be equipped with a conversion mechanism. This greatly reduces the mechanical efficiency of the system; because of the mechanical transmission of the final output speed and frequency can not be increased, coupled with the motor and conversion mechanism itself is not so simple mechanical structure, which makes the dc solenoid in some flat moving distance is not very large, flat moving speed and frequency requirements of the case has an irreplaceable advantage.

From the electrical point of view: solenoid is a large inductive load device.

Whether it is a DC or an AC solenoid, it is composed of a coil and an iron core, and this structure determines its inductive characteristics. The more turns of the coil, the thicker the core, the greater the inductance, the more energy storage, the greater the output force, while the longer the action response time, the greater the phase difference between the voltage and current of the AC solenoid, the more unstable the working performance of the solenoid.


For AC solenoids, currents are generated in the core causing severe iron loss, so the core of AC solenoids are made of laminated sheets to reduce currents, which is the reason why AC solenoids are square in appearance.


For DC solenoids, the current will slowly rise to the rated current when energized, which is the reason for the response time, the moment of power failure inductor reverse discharge, the formation of reverse high voltage, the switch contacts or power supply caused by reverse shock, in DC power or self-inductance is relatively large or frequent action, must be added with a current-continuity diode or reverse current absorption of the protection element.


From the control point of view to see: solenoid is a state control device.

Due to the simple structure of the solenoid, the output force, position and speed control cannot be achieved during the movement of the solenoid. Even if the use of closed-loop for real-time control, the control effect is not satisfactory, while the response of the solenoid to the state is very clear, in place and return, and the two state positions after several iterations will almost not change.

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